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Group Normalization divides the channels into groups and computes within each group the mean and variance for normalization. Empirically, its accuracy is more stable than batch norm in a wide range of small batch sizes, if learning rate is adjusted linearly with batch sizes.

Relation to Layer Normalization: If the number of groups is set to 1, then this operation becomes nearly identical to Layer Normalization (see Layer Normalization docs for details).

Relation to Instance Normalization: If the number of groups is set to the input dimension (number of groups is equal to number of channels), then this operation becomes identical to Instance Normalization. You can achieve this via groups=-1.

Usage

layer_group_normalization(
  object,
  groups = 32L,
  axis = -1L,
  epsilon = 0.001,
  center = TRUE,
  scale = TRUE,
  beta_initializer = "zeros",
  gamma_initializer = "ones",
  beta_regularizer = NULL,
  gamma_regularizer = NULL,
  beta_constraint = NULL,
  gamma_constraint = NULL,
  ...
)

Arguments

object

Object to compose the layer with. A tensor, array, or sequential model.

groups

Integer, the number of groups for Group Normalization. Can be in the range [1, N] where N is the input dimension. The input dimension must be divisible by the number of groups. Defaults to 32.

axis

Integer or List/Tuple. The axis or axes to normalize across. Typically, this is the features axis/axes. The left-out axes are typically the batch axis/axes. -1 is the last dimension in the input. Defaults to -1.

epsilon

Small float added to variance to avoid dividing by zero. Defaults to 1e-3.

center

If TRUE, add offset of beta to normalized tensor. If FALSE, beta is ignored. Defaults to TRUE.

scale

If TRUE, multiply by gamma. If FALSE, gamma is not used. When the next layer is linear (also e.g. relu), this can be disabled since the scaling will be done by the next layer. Defaults to TRUE.

beta_initializer

Initializer for the beta weight. Defaults to zeros.

gamma_initializer

Initializer for the gamma weight. Defaults to ones.

beta_regularizer

Optional regularizer for the beta weight. NULL by default.

gamma_regularizer

Optional regularizer for the gamma weight. NULL by default.

beta_constraint

Optional constraint for the beta weight. NULL by default.

gamma_constraint

Optional constraint for the gamma weight. NULL by default.

...

For forward/backward compatability.

Value

The return value depends on the value provided for the first argument. If object is:

  • a keras_model_sequential(), then the layer is added to the sequential model (which is modified in place). To enable piping, the sequential model is also returned, invisibly.

  • a keras_input(), then the output tensor from calling layer(input) is returned.

  • NULL or missing, then a Layer instance is returned.

Input Shape

Arbitrary. Use the keyword argument input_shape (tuple of integers, does not include the samples axis) when using this layer as the first layer in a model.

Output Shape

Same shape as input. **kwargs: Base layer keyword arguments (e.g. name and dtype).

See also

Other normalization layers:
layer_batch_normalization()
layer_layer_normalization()
layer_spectral_normalization()
layer_unit_normalization()

Other layers:
Layer()
layer_activation()
layer_activation_elu()
layer_activation_leaky_relu()
layer_activation_parametric_relu()
layer_activation_relu()
layer_activation_softmax()
layer_activity_regularization()
layer_add()
layer_additive_attention()
layer_alpha_dropout()
layer_attention()
layer_average()
layer_average_pooling_1d()
layer_average_pooling_2d()
layer_average_pooling_3d()
layer_batch_normalization()
layer_bidirectional()
layer_category_encoding()
layer_center_crop()
layer_concatenate()
layer_conv_1d()
layer_conv_1d_transpose()
layer_conv_2d()
layer_conv_2d_transpose()
layer_conv_3d()
layer_conv_3d_transpose()
layer_conv_lstm_1d()
layer_conv_lstm_2d()
layer_conv_lstm_3d()
layer_cropping_1d()
layer_cropping_2d()
layer_cropping_3d()
layer_dense()
layer_depthwise_conv_1d()
layer_depthwise_conv_2d()
layer_discretization()
layer_dot()
layer_dropout()
layer_einsum_dense()
layer_embedding()
layer_feature_space()
layer_flatten()
layer_gaussian_dropout()
layer_gaussian_noise()
layer_global_average_pooling_1d()
layer_global_average_pooling_2d()
layer_global_average_pooling_3d()
layer_global_max_pooling_1d()
layer_global_max_pooling_2d()
layer_global_max_pooling_3d()
layer_group_query_attention()
layer_gru()
layer_hashed_crossing()
layer_hashing()
layer_identity()
layer_integer_lookup()
layer_lambda()
layer_layer_normalization()
layer_lstm()
layer_masking()
layer_max_pooling_1d()
layer_max_pooling_2d()
layer_max_pooling_3d()
layer_maximum()
layer_minimum()
layer_multi_head_attention()
layer_multiply()
layer_normalization()
layer_permute()
layer_random_brightness()
layer_random_contrast()
layer_random_crop()
layer_random_flip()
layer_random_rotation()
layer_random_translation()
layer_random_zoom()
layer_repeat_vector()
layer_rescaling()
layer_reshape()
layer_resizing()
layer_rnn()
layer_separable_conv_1d()
layer_separable_conv_2d()
layer_simple_rnn()
layer_spatial_dropout_1d()
layer_spatial_dropout_2d()
layer_spatial_dropout_3d()
layer_spectral_normalization()
layer_string_lookup()
layer_subtract()
layer_text_vectorization()
layer_tfsm()
layer_time_distributed()
layer_torch_module_wrapper()
layer_unit_normalization()
layer_upsampling_1d()
layer_upsampling_2d()
layer_upsampling_3d()
layer_zero_padding_1d()
layer_zero_padding_2d()
layer_zero_padding_3d()
rnn_cell_gru()
rnn_cell_lstm()
rnn_cell_simple()
rnn_cells_stack()